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Nicotine Dependence among Chinese City Dwellers: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Date:2011-04-26 10:47 
Nicotine Dependence among Chinese City Dwellers: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study was written by Tingzhong Yang, the Direct of the Center for Tobacco Control Research, Zhejiang University School of Medicine. It was published in the Nicotine & Tobacco Research on March 31, 2011.
This paper used a population-based cross-sectional study to investigate nicotine dependence among Chinese mainland smokers through a multistage systematic sampling procedure. Of all smokers, 27.1% were considered dependent by FTND criteria. Among the males, 50.8% were current smokers, 38.9% daily smokers, and 11.9% occasional smokers. Occasional or non-daily smokers show less dependence than daily smokers. In this urban sample, FTND scores for male daily smokers averaged 3.49 (3.47 for both genders). This score is at the high end of nicotine dependence levels observed (for both genders) in European countries, such as Germany and Norway (2.8), Spain and Netherlands (2.9),England(3.0).The results for the urban population suggest that achiev­ing high rates of smoking cessation in China will be challenging and that many smokers may need and benefit from treatment. Among daily smokers, FTND scores were negatively associated with age at smoking initiation, education, and self-efficacy for quitting smoking. It presented the result about higher nicotine dependence was associated with lower self-efficacy for quitting. These findings suggested us both self-efficacy and nicotine dependence should be targeted for smoking interventions and treatment. This paper also tells us tobacco control initiatives need to prevent wider adoption of smoking by females, whom at this juncture form a low-risk group.
       This paper has significant implications for design and implementation of smoking cessation interventions.